Volume 2 (1995)

raven2_coverAvailable: out of print, online only (links below)

In its second volume, Raven continues its mission to present important and current flag scholarship not only topical to North America but worldwide.


Whatever Happened to the Great 1989-90 American Flag Desecration Uproar?
Robert Justin Goldstein, professor of political science at Oakdale University and author of several books and articles on censorship, political repression, and flag desecration—Rochester, Michigan

In June 1989 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional the Texas law against flag-burning, triggering an effort to amend the U.S. constitution. This article traces the history of that amendment to its defeat a year later, and subsequent events in the controversy through 1995. A previous version won the Driver Award in 1994.

Also available from PDC


The Use of Flags on Coastal Whaling Stations
Henry W. Moeller, a professor of oceanography, marine archaeology, and botany at Dowling Collage and author of “Shattering an American Myth: Unfurling the History of the American Flag”—Hampton Bay, New York

The signal flags used from the 1600s in America’s coastal whale fishery echoed those employed by the English, Dutch, and Basques on the other side of the Atlantic. Using signal towers on land helped alert communities to the presence of whales. This paper traces their use into the 1900s.

Also available from PDC


Symbolism in the Israel Defense Forces: A Brief Overview
Zvi Ruder, an Israeli national working in the U.S. and author of “The National Colors of the People of Israel”—Lexington, Massachusetts

The IDF utilizes three types of symbols on its flags and related devices: biblical, Zionist, and new symbols. This article describes the breadth of these symbols, and explains why the two most likely Israeli symbols—the Star of David and the menorah—are seldom employed.

Also available from PDC


The National Flag of Turkmenistan of 1992
Jiří Tenora, director of the Flag Cabinet Berlin and prominent European vexillologist—Berlin, Germany

In 1992 the former Soviet republic of Turkmenistan adopted a completely new flag, using as primary charges five “guls” or carpet medallions. The article explains the complex geometry and symbolism of the flag, including why the crescent points toward the hoist, unlike most other Islamic flags.

Also available from PDC


The Flags of Recreational Boating: A Preliminary Survey
Peter Edwards, director of Burgee Data Archive and past president of the Heraldry Society of Canada—Toronto, Ontario

During the past 275 years the thousands of yacht clubs in the world have shared a common symbol—a burgee. Individuals, club officers, and events all used flags. This article provides an overview of the subject and suggests a classification system.

Also available from PDC


  • Scot M. Guenter, Ph.D., Editor
  • Jon T. Radel, Managing Editor
  • Editorial Board:
  • Grace Rogers Cooper, Smithsonian Institution (emerita)
  • Scot M. Guenter, San José State University
  • John M. Purcell, Cleveland State University